中华文明的核心价值与交流互鉴国际儒学联合会第六届会员大会学术讲座|安乐哲:知己知彼:阐释域境的中西镜鉴
2019-11-19 发布
466 人浏览

      11月18日晚19:00,中华文明的核心价值与交流互鉴国际儒学联合会第六届会员大会学术讲座中国职工之家酒店报告厅举行。主讲学者有:北京大学人文讲席教授安乐哲、北京外国语大学教授张西平、中国孔子研究院院长杨朝明和清华大学教授彭林。

      安乐哲教授作了题为“知己知彼:阐释域境的中西镜鉴”的学术讲座。安乐哲儒学大家团队核心成员田辰山教授担任主持人与主讲学者和国际学者进行了现场互动。


《知己知彼:阐释域境的中西镜鉴》

Knowing the Other, Knowing Yourself: The Optics of Interpretive Context


中西文化之间存在旷日持久而且贻害颇深的不对称关系。今天,当我们走进一家中国书店或图书馆,所有具有西方文化化身的书籍,老的、新的,都能找到,翻译质量都很高。一群年轻、求知欲渴的中国读者群,是持久推动出版这种书籍的动力。

There is a persistent and pernicious asymmetry in the relationship between Chinese and Western culture. Go into a Chinese bookstore or library today, and all of the avatars of Western culture old and new are readily available in high quality translation. And a young and eager Chinese readership provides momentum for this continuing publishing phenomenon.

 

走进一家西方书店或者图书馆,则发现,无论旧时代、新时代,中国最杰出思想家的书,都一概根本找不到。 而且最让人尴尬的是,对这种情况,竟然没有要求解决这个不对称的读者群;对介绍中国文化的书,竟没有需求市场.

Go into a Western bookstore or library, and the best thinkers of China old and new are almost totally absent. And what is most disconcerting is that there is no readership to demand that this asymmetry be addressed. There is no eager market for a literature on Chinese culture.

 

为什么?情况怎么会是这样?

Why? How did this come about?

 

首先是,早些时代,传统中国经典的英文翻译是由传教士们做的;这样的翻译通过他们基督教的眼光,这些经典文本被转化为一种二流基督教祷文性的东西。 走进这种西方书店和图书馆,《易经》、《论语》、《道德经》、《庄子》这些中国哲学文化根本著作,是摆放在猎奇的东方宗教一类书架的,而不是在令人肃然起敬的哲学类书架上。

First, early on, the traditional Chinese classics were translated into English by missionaries through a Christian lens that transformed these canonical texts into a liturgy of second-rate Christianity. Go into those same Western bookstores and libraries, and the defining texts of Chinese philosophy and culture—the YijingLunyuDaodejingZhuangzi—are shelved under the curious rubric of “Eastern Religions” rather than in the respected shelves of “philosophy” itself.

 

走进西方国家最高学问庙堂,中国哲学一般不是归属在宗教学就是在亚洲学;哲学系肯定是不教的。用青铜礼器来转喻中国哲学和文化这种情况,正如《论语》说的觚不觚,觚哉觚哉

Go into the highest seats of learning in Western countries and Chinese philosophy is usually taught if at all in religion and Asian studies departments rather than in philosophy departments. With the bronze ritual vessel  as a metonym for Chinese philosophy and culture, as it says in the Lunyu觚不觚,觚哉觚哉。We might rephrase this as “‘Chinese philosophy’ that is not Chinese philosophy—a strange Chinese philosophy, a strange Chinese philosophy.”

 

如果中国哲学文化只是简单的西方宗教一个影子,倘若年轻人,还有很多西方知识分子,尽管不是绝大多数,都认为他们自己的传统宗教是陈旧的、教条的、没什么意义的,那么西方人就不需要或者对一个跟西方传统雷同的儒家文化会有什么兴趣。

If Chinese philosophy and culture is simply the shadow of a Western religion, and if young people, and many if not most Western intellectuals regarding their own religious traditions as old and dogmatic and of little interest, Western people do not need or want a Confucian culture that has the same profile.

    

另外,十九世纪中期之后,欧美教育制度体制——大学、学院及其课程,都被一股脑儿引进中国、日本、韩国和越南等东亚文化;现代性语言被移植到白话语中,促动了亚洲文化对自己传统实行理论化,贯穿的基本是西方的概念结构。

At the same time, in the middle and late 19th century the institutional structures of European and American education—universities, schools and their curricula—were imported wholesale into the East Asia cultures of China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, and the language of modernity was translated into the vernacular languages, prompting Asian cultures themselves to theorize their own traditions through a largely Western conceptual structure. 

 

与此自我殖民随之而至的,是西方和东亚文化都出现的一种情形,即现代化简单地被等同西方化 陈旧保守僵化教条为理由,把儒家文化关在门外。

In the wake of this self-colonization, a situation has emerged both in the cultures of the Western and East Asia in which “modernization” is simply “Westernization,” leaving Confucian culture outside the door as something old, dogmatic, and conservative. 

 

这一历史的效果,是儒家这个词的价值,如果西方有所理解的话,人们想到的它的价值无非是经古不变经句,背诵而学,族长制的,等级制的,一种仅是属于过去的传统罢了。盎格鲁-美利坚的过程哲学家怀德海称孔子为使中国停滞不前的人.”

The consequence of this history is that the value of the word “Confucian” in the West if understood at all, evokes the values of unchanging classics, rote learning, patriarchy, hierarchy—a tradition that properly belongs to yesterday. The great Anglo-American process philosopher, A.N. Whitehead, described Confucius as “the man who made China stand still.”

 

另外在中国环境,儒学一词在年轻人之中也不是什么太美好的词,年轻人们将它理解为是自由民主现代性的人性解放价值反面的一个压迫历史。  

And in the Chinese world, the term “儒学” does not fare much better among young people who see it as an oppressive historical alternative to the liberating values of a liberal and democratic modernity.

 

这是我们今天所处在的历史节点,是我们必须作为行动起点的地方.

This is where we are, and where we have to begin.

 

可是于我们正活在的世界,一代人的功夫,亚洲崛起,尤其是中国,世界的经济和政治治学已在发生空前的格局性变化。随之而来是不是也将有一个变动的世界文化秩序?

But we are living in world in which over the last decade, with the rise of Asia, and particularly of China, the economic and political order of the world has undergone an unprecedented sea change. Will there be a changing world cultural order that follows in its wake?

 

中国这些哲理,在什么实实在在的方面,可有助于形成一个变动世界的文化秩序? 

What in concrete terms do these Chinese canons have to offer a changing world cultural order?

 

一种浑然融合的文化变化形态,其中本来的竞争热度,转化为浑然熔化而一的熔炉 ——一个曾把外来佛学内化、转为儒学佛家思想的传统。

A hybridic and inclusive model of cultural change wherein the heat of contest becomes the furnace of amalgamation and fusion—a tradition in which Buddhism is internalized to become Confucian Buddhism.

 

以家以人为中心、而非以教堂以神为中心的宗教性,它不是亚布拉罕传统那样的总是猝然推向战争与冲突。

A human-centered rather than a God-centered religiousness that unlike the Abrahamic traditions, does not persistently precipitate war and conflict.

 

一种家、国情怀,基于努力而做到的伦理角色洽宜度,以此服务于社会与政治秩序,以此对法治作为必要的相辅相成。

A conception of family and community based on achieved propriety in roles and relations that serves social and political order as a necessary complement to the rule of law.

 

一种治国理政之人,必须以良好教育及自我人格修养为条件的治理观念。

A conception of governance that requires education and the cultivation of character from those who would presume to govern. 

 

一种儒家角色(身份)伦理,根植于对家、国关系之珍重,讲的是双赢或者双输,而不是自由个人主义意识形态及其分裂性的、制造紧张不和的你输我赢游戏模式。

A Confucian role ethic grounded in the deference of family and communal relations that offers a win-win or lose-lose alternative to the ideology of liberal individualism and its divisive and deflationary model of winners and losers.

 

宗教只是一种对社群所认知的主宰的崇拜和文化风俗的教化。宗教是一种社会历史现象,多数宗教是对超自然力量、宇宙创造者和控制者的相信或尊敬,它给人以灵魂并延续至死后的信仰体系。 (百度)

Definition of “Religion:” The belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a personal God or gods. Etymology: Middle English (originally in the sense ‘life under monastic vows’): from Old French, or from Latin religio(n-) ‘obligation, bond, reverence’, perhaps based on Latin religare ‘to bind’.

 

Analects 1.12 有子曰:「禮之用,和為貴。先王之道斯為美,小大由之。有所不行,知和而和,不以禮節之,亦不可行也。」

Master You said: “An optimizing, superlative harmony is the most valuable function of aspiring to propriety in our roles and relations. In the ways of the Former Kings, this optimization of harmony by aspiring to such propriety made them refined, and was a guiding standard in all things large and small. But when things are not going well, to pursue harmony just for its own sake without regulating the situation through achieving propriety will not work.” 

The composition of the earlier, more complex graph for “optimal harmony” (he) found on the oracle bones and on the bronzes. This character is composed of a yue wind instrument constructed out of reed pipes, with “growing grain” (he ) as the phonetic element, alluding to the playing of music as one metaphorical way of understanding this particular, highly aesthetic sense of harmony. What kind of ”harmony”? Family, menu, 孙子兵法;Whitehead’s aesthetic vs. rational order Oratio + ratio vs. ratioOptimizing symbiosis 优化,最大化的共生体系 Teleology vs. zhonghe 中和 (Zhongyong 中庸:至诚,至圣)


我相信,儒家哲学的内涵价值及教育制度,对新世界文化秩序,堪为重大利好,可我们怎样才能克服今天的对儒学的误解呢? 我们怎样去对中国人也对西方公众去讲述从儒学经典产生出的儒学重要意义呢?我们怎样书写对我们当今时代的评价,奉献给这个世界一个具批判力、与时俱进、适应时代、温故知新的儒学,运用这个儒学应对当今时代面临的紧迫问题?

Since I and I expect you too believe that Confucian philosophy has values and institutions that can be of enormous benefit to a new world cultural order, how can we overcome this misunderstanding of Confucianism? How can we communicate to both a Chinese and a Western public the importance of Confucianism as it has been transmitted through the classical canons? How can we write a commentary for our own times that gives the world a critical, progressive, evolutionary, emergent Confucianism that addresses the pressing issues of our times?  

 

论美国的翻译中国文化:一项半成品 ON THE TRANSLATION OF CHINESE CULTURE IN AMERICA: A WORK IN PROGRESS

 

我们该怎样应对把儒学文化全盘抛弃、把现代化等同于西方化的挑战?一个东西方化性的现代化的新世界文化秩序有什么样子?

How can we challenge the pernicious equation between modernity and Westernization that erases Confucian culture altogether? What will a modernity as “Eastern-and-Westernization” look like?

Confucius孔子+主義or 60+80世代 generations of Ruxue儒學?


Analects 6.13:子謂子夏曰:女為君子儒,無為小人儒。

The Master remarked to Zixia, “You want to become the kind of scholar-counselor who is an exemplary person, not the kind that is a petty person”


Analects 7.1子曰:述而不作,信而好古,竊比於我老彭。

The Master said, “Following the proper way, I do not forge new paths; with confidence I cherish the ancients-in these respects I am comparable to old Peng”


Analects 15.16子曰:不曰如之何如之何'者,吾末如之何也已矣

The Master said, "There is nothing that I can do for people who are not constantly asking themselves: What to do? What to do?"


Analects 2.11子日:溫故而知新·可以為師矣。

The Master said“Reviewing the old as a means of realizing thenew-such a person can be considered a teacher.”

Ru(儒)The intergenerational transmission and embodiment of a compounding cultural legacy within a complex network of family lineages (jiazu家族) closely aligned with the prime

moral imperatives of this tradition:

“family reverence”(xiao),“fraternal deference”(ti),“achieving propriety in one's roles and relations”"(li)“personal cultivation and the consummation of one' s roles and relations"(ren)," human way-making”(daothrough"virtuosic habits of conduct"(de),(wen) "the continuing aesthetic and moral process of inscribing and embellishing the human experience though literary, civil,and artistic pursuits".

 

Ralph Waldo Emerson(爱默生):

文明依赖道德。人所善者因其高远,如此而言,无论大小。人手中作业之力量与成就,在于借助他力。你见过木匠站在梯子上用板斧从高处的横梁砍下木屑与碎片;多么难受得姿势,多么费力!再看看他在地上工作的情景,他劈砍身下的木料。这时候,用力的不是自己肌肉;而是大地的引力将他的板斧向下带动,是地球的力量劈开他的木料。

Civilization depends on morality. Everything good in man leans on what is higher. This rule holds in small as in great. Thus, all our strength and success in the work of our hands depend on our borrowing the aid of the elements. You have seen a carpenter on a ladder with a broad-axe chopping upward chips and slivers from a beam.How awkward! at what disadvantage he works!But see him on the ground, dressing his timber under him. Now, not his feeble muscles, but the force of gravity brings down the axe; that is to say, the planet itself splits his stick.(“ American Civilization” in Atlantic Monthly 1862)



安乐哲 (Roger T.Ames)

安乐哲(RogerT.Ames),1947年生于加拿大多伦多,国际知名汉学大师、美国夏威夷大学教授、尼山圣源书院顾问、世界儒学文化研究联合会会长、国际儒联联合会副会长。 他是中西比较哲学界的领军人物,更因翻译了《论语》《孙子兵法》《淮南子》《道德经》等书而蜚声海内外。主编《东西方哲学》、《国际中国书评》,著有《孔子哲学思微》、《汉哲学思维的文化探源》、《期待中国:探求中国和西方的文化叙述》、《主术:中国古代政治思想研究》、《先哲的民主:杜威、孔子和中国民主之希望》。安乐哲先生曾接受过刘殿爵先生的指导,精通文言文,是当代杰出古典学家之一。2013年,荣获第六届世界儒学大会颁发“孔子文化奖”。2016年,荣获第二届“会林文化奖”。2018年,荣获“文明之光·2018中国文化交流年度人物”;并荣获“北京大学燕园友谊奖”;2019年,荣获“杜威学术学会2019终身成就奖”。…
+ 详细了解

互动交流

  • 下载专区

  • 企业邮箱

  • 官方微博

  • 一多不分微信

    公众号

  • 一多不分讲堂

    直播号